Tribunals Court has its own structure for dealing with cases and appeals. When the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act came into force in November 2008, a new Tribunal system was created. This included a First-tier Tribunal and an Upper tribunal, both of which are split into Chambers which comprise of similar jurisdictions.
Tribunals typically exist in the format of a panel, with a legally qualified tribunal chairman and panel members who specialise in certain areas. After hearing evidence from witnesses, tribunals cover a wide range of issues that affect daily life, such as imposing fines, penalties, awarding compensations, allowing benefits, or providing special educational help for school age children.
Individuals do not need to have a legal representative, and many cases involve individuals putting their own case forward. Because of this, tribunal judges can guide non-legal parties through the necessary procedures if needed.
The First–tier Tribunal comprises six chambers:
- The General Regulatory Chamber
Claims Management Services
Local Government Standards in England
- Health, Education and Social Care Chamber
Special Educational Needs & Disability
Primary Health Lists
- Immigration and Asylum Chamber
Immigration and Asylum
- Social Entitlement Chamber
Criminal Injuries Compensation
Social Security and Child Support
- Tax Chamber
- War Pensions and Armed Forces Compensation Chamber
War Pensions and Armed Forces Compensation
The Upper Tribunal reviews and decides appeals from the First–tier Tribunal. Similar to the High Court, the Upper Tribunal is a senior court. It has the existing specialist judges of the senior tribunals judiciary at its disposal but can also call on the services of High Court judges.
The Upper Tribunal comprises four chambers:
- The Administrative Appeals Chamber
Upper Tribunal (Administrative Appeals)
- The Immigration and Asylum Chamber
Upper Tribunal (Immigration and Asylum)
- The Lands Chamber
Upper Tribunal (Lands)
- The Tax and Chancery Chamber
Upper Tribunal (Tax and Chancery)